VM host networking
To enable VM host networking features, MAAS must match the VM host IP address of a potential VM host with a known device (a machine or controller). For example, if a machine not known to MAAS is set up as a VM host, enhanced interface selection features will not be available.
We recommend that you deploy a machine within MAAS, and then check the “Install MAAS-managed VM Host” checkbox (a full explanation is found here). MAAS will automatically install the VM host, as well as ensuring that the network model is consistent with what is on the machine.
There are other ways of setting up VM hosts that provide easy management of VMs via the MAAS UI. You can, for example, install a VM host manually on a deployed node or a new or existing rack controller.
Enhanced VM host networking features may not operate correctly when you install a VM host manually on a deployed node. (E.g. if any of the host interfaces change.)
Quick questions you may have:
- What should I know about VM host networking with MAAS 2.4 and earlier?
- What should I know about VM host networking with MAAS 2.5 and later?
- What should I know about bridges and VM host networking?
2.4 and earlier
MAAS requires the use of a DHCP server it can control. Therefore, DHCP must be enabled in MAAS (rather than in libvirt) to allow VMs to use network booting (e.g. PXE). A DHCP relay can also forward DHCP requests to MAAS.
MAAS first checks for the existence of a libvirt network named
maas network should have DHCP disabled in favour of MAAS-enabled DHCP to allow your VMs to network boot. VMs on the
maas libvirt network must be able to reach the wider network. As such, either (1) the bridge the VMs are attached to must include one of the host’s physical network interfaces on the appropriate network, or (2) NAT must be enabled.
If MAAS cannot find a
maas network, it will fallback to libvirt’s
default network has DHCP enabled by default. You must either disable libvirt’s DHCP and enable MAAS DHCP on the
default network in libvirt, or create a separate
maas network on a VLAN with MAAS DHCP enabled.
In MAAS 2.5, you can apply interface-constraints to VMs, which allows you to compose a VM with specific networking requirements. A full-explanation of the feature is found in the following section. When you meet these requirements, MAAS can connect your VMs to the full range of MAAS-configured network.
With interface constraints
Instead of attaching to a libvirt network like
default, MAAS in this case tells the hypervisor on the host to attach the VM directly to a constraints-matching underlying bridge or non-bridge interface via macvtap. If you provide a specific IP address in the constraint string, MAAS will try to allocate it and assign it to the interface when creating the VM. This feature offers some limited interface configuration capability during the creation process.
With no interface constraints
If you do not specify interface constraints, MAAS attaches the VM to a network based on VM installation mode.
If MAAS deployed a host for use as a KVM host (recommended), MAAS will skip the libvirt
default networks if they are not enabled for DHCP in MAAS, instead preferring a DHCP-enabled MAAS network. This arrangement means you don’t have to manually create a MAAS-friendly libvirt network to which to attach the VM as with previous versions of MAAS.
If you installed KVM manually on your host after deploying via MAAS, MAAS will revert to its 2.4 behaviour. Namely, MAAS will try to attach to a suitable
default libvirt network, enabling network booting if it detects MAAS-enabled DHCP on either.
MAAS uses macvlan if an interfaces constraint specifies a macvlan interface when composing a VM.
You can configure the default macvlan mode of an existing VM host using the CLI:
maas $PROFILE vm-host update <vm-host-id> host=<host> default_macvlan_mode=<mode>
vm-host-id: The VM host’s MAAS ID
host: The IP or hostname of the libvirt instance
private: VMs with the same parent interface cannot communicate but can reach destinations outside the parent interface
vepa: VM communication is forwarded through the parent interface and reflected if the source and destination of the packet are local to the VMs. VMs can reach destinations outside the parent interface. Note that this requires a VEPA switching mechanism.
bridge: Inter-VM communication is maintained locally (behind the parent interface), and destinations outside are forwarded through the parent interface.
passthru: Allows a single VM to be connected directly to the parent interface, which in turn allows the VM to change MAC addresses and other interface parameters.
Bridge vs. macvlan
Unless you have a specific reason to use macvlan, a bridge is the better choice for most situations. macvlan is simpler in design than a bridge, so it offers better throughput and less demand on CPU. Remember, though, that a bridge is typically easier to configure – and more likely to result in successful communication.