About commissioning machines

Errors or typos? Topics missing? Hard to read? Let us know.

When MAAS commissions a machine, it follows these steps:

  1. The DHCP server connects.
  2. The kernel and initrd are received over TFTP.
  3. The machine boots.
  4. The initrd daemon mounts an ephemeral Squashfs image over HTTP.
  5. The cloud-init tool runs built-in and custom commissioning scripts.
  6. The machine shuts down.

Commissioning scripts communicate with the region API server to ensure deployment success.

MAAS commissions machines with the latest Ubuntu LTS release by default. You may select a different image with Settings > General > Commissioning in the web UI.

Commissioning requires 60 seconds.

NUMA and SR-IOV

If you are using NUMA, MAAS assigns machines to a single NUMA node by default. Splitting nodes can create latency. Match VM boundaries to NUMA boundaries for best results.

You can specify a node index for interfaces and physical block devices. MAAS will report details about the NUMA node, such as the index, node count, CPU cores, memory, NICs, and node spaces. You can filter machines by CPU cores, memory, subnet, VLAN, fabric, space, storage, and RAID.

Commissioning scripts

MAAS use scripts to enlist, commission and test nodes. Enlistment and commissioning run built-in scripts. Commissioning also runs user-uploaded scripts by default. MAAS uses these commissioning scripts to scan the hardware, update firmware, and configure deployment. Hardware testing scripts to check hardware status.

Scripts may be scheduled from the web UI or CLI, or by testing hardware. A typical administrator workflow is Add machine > Enlistment > New > Commission > Ready > Deploy.

Scripts run in alphabetical order. We recommend running your scripts last, by naming 99-z*. Scripts can reboot a machine during commissioning using a script, but only firmware updates survive the reboot.

MAAS instructs a newly-booted machine to run cloud-init to set up SSH keys and NTP, and then run commissioning scripts. Built-in scripts follow this order, usually with extensive logging:

  • maas-support-info: gathers information that helps to identify and characterise the machine for debugging purposes. *Runs in parallel with other scripts.

  • maas-lshw: pulls BIOS and vendor info, and generates user-defined tags for later use. *Runs in parallel with other scripts.

  • 20-maas-01-install-lldpd: installs the link layer discovery protocol (LLDP) daemon to capture networking information.

  • maas-list-modaliases: identifies the available hardware modules. *Runs in parallel with other scripts.

  • 20-maas-02-dhcp-unconfigured-ifaces: PXE comes online during boot; this script identifies other attached networks.

  • maas-get-fruid-api-data: gathers information for the Facebook wedge power type. *Runs in parallel with other scripts.

  • maas-serial-ports: finds the available serial ports. *Runs in parallel with other scripts.

  • 40-maas-01-network-interfaces: get the IP addresses associated with a VLANs/subnets; deprecated as of MAAS 3.0.

  • 50-maas-01-commissioning: gathers information on machine resources, such as storage, network devices, CPU, RAM, and attached USB and PCI devices. Also recognizes virtual machines.

  • maas-capture-lldp: gathers LLDP network information for logging. *Runs in parallel with other scripts.

  • maas-kernel-cmdline: update the boot devices to use the correct boot interface.

Commissioning and enlistment run the same built-in scripts, pulled from the MAAS database, but commissioning scripts also:

  • Runs user-supplied scripts as root.

  • Runs test scripts.

  • Configures the machine’s BMC by writing power credentials.

  • Run only on machines that have a New status.

MAAS can use a MAC address or a UUID to identify a machine.

You can change how commissioning runs:

  • enable_ssh: Optional integer to enable SSH for the commissioning environment using the user’s SSH key(s). ‘1’ == True, ‘0’ == False. Roughly equivalent to the Allow SSH access and prevent machine powering off in the web UI.

  • skip_bmc_config: Optional integer to skip re-configuration of the BMC for IPMI based machines. ‘1’ == True, ‘0’ == False.

  • skip_networking: Optional integer to skip re-configuring the networking on the machine after the commissioning has completed. ‘1’ == True, ‘0’ == False. Roughly equivalent to Retain network configuration in the web UI.

  • skip_storage: Optional integer to skip re-configuring the storage on the machine after the commissioning has completed. ‘1’ == True, ‘0’ == False. Roughly equivalent to Retain storage configuration in the web UI.

  • commissioning_scripts: Optional string. A comma separated list of commissioning script names and tags to be run. By default all custom commissioning scripts are run. Built-in commissioning scripts always run. Selecting update_firmware or configure_hba will run firmware updates or configure HBA’s on matching machines.

  • testing_scripts: Optional string. A comma separated list of testing script names and tags to be run. By default all tests tagged commissioning will be run. Set to none to disable running tests.

  • parameters: Optional string. Scripts selected to run can define their own parameters. These parameters are passed using the parameter name. A parameter can have the script name prepended to have that parameter only apply to that specific script.

Commissioning logs

MAAS logs the commissioning process for every machine with timestamped records. If commissioning fails, check the logs.

Disabling boot methods

You can disable individual boot methods with the MAAS CLI on a VLAN/subnet basis. MAAS-provided DHCP will not respond to the associated boot architecture code^ for disabled methods. External DHCP servers must be configured manually.

Automatic selection

When selecting multiple machines, scripts declaring the for_hardware field will run only on machines with matching hardware. To automatically run a script when Update firmware or (Configure HBA is selected, you must tag the script appropriately. Command-line scripts that specify for_hardware also run only on matching hardware.

Interpreting scripts

Scripts write results to a YAML file in RESULT_PATH before exiting. The YAML file has two fields:

  1. result: The completion status of the script: passed, failed, degraded, or skipped. Some scripts return 0 or non-zero values for “failed” and “passed,” respectively.

  2. results: A dictionary of results, presented as strings.

Script return results specified by metadata fields:

  1. title - The title for the result, used in the UI.

  2. description - The description of the field used as a tool-tip in the UI.

Here is an example of “degrade detection”:

!/usr/bin/env python3

 --- Start MAAS 1.0 script metadata ---
 name: example
 results:
. memspeed:
.   title: Memory Speed
.   description: Bandwidth speed of memory while performing random read writes
 --- End MAAS 1.0 script metadata ---

import os
import yaml

memspeed = some_test()

print('Memspeed: %s' % memspeed)
results = {
. 'results': {
. .  'memspeed': memspeed,
. }
}
if memspeed < 100:
. print('WARN: Memory test passed but performance is low!')
. results['status'] = 'degraded'

result_path = os.environ.get("RESULT_PATH")
if result_path is not None:
. with open(result_path, 'w') as results_file:
. .  yaml.safe_dump(results, results_file)

Tagging scripts

Tags make scripts easier to manage. These tags group together commissioning and testing scripts:

maas $PROFILE node-script add-tag $SCRIPT_NAME tag=$TAG
maas $PROFILE node-script remove-tag $SCRIPT_NAME tag=$TAG

MAAS runs all commissioning scripts by default, but you can select custom commissioning scripts by name or tag:

maas $PROFILE machine commission \
commissioning_scripts=$SCRIPT_NAME,$SCRIPT_TAG

You can also select testing scripts by name or tag:

maas $PROFILE machine commission \
testing_scripts=$SCRIPT_NAME,$SCRIPT_TAG

Any testing scripts tagged with commissioning will also run during commissioning.

Debugging scripts

Scripts log full results regardless of success or failure. For more details, choose the option to leave the machine on after commissioning. You can then connect to the machine and examine its logs.

If you’ve added your SSH key to MAAS, you may connect with SSH to the machine’s IP with a username of ubuntu. Enter sudo -i to get root access.

Testing hardware

You can test machine hardware using any available Linux utility. You can create your own testing scripts and read their logs. MAAS tests machines that that are Ready, Broken, or Deployed. If the hardware tests fail, you can’t deploy the machine. Testing scripts don’t always work with virtual machines.

Interpreting logs

You can also examine log details on any particular tests or just review the raw log output. Help interpreting these logs can be found under the Logging section of this documentation.

Testing networks

MAAS can test networks and links, including connection status and link speeds. You can test Internet connectivity against a user-provided list of URLs or IP addresses. Bonded NICS are separated during this testing to check each side of a dual interface. You can also provide custom scxripts with no restrictions.

Delayed NW config

Once commissioned, you can configure the machine’s network interface(s). Specifically, when a machine’s status is either “Ready” or “Broken”, interfaces can be added/removed, attached to a fabric or subnet, and provided an IP assignment mode. Tags can also be assigned to specific network interfaces.


Last updated 19 days ago.