MAAS installation (snap/2.8/cli)

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MAAS can be installed in either of two configurations: test or production. The test configuration uses a small PostgreSQL database (in a separate snap), designed for use with MAAS. The full-up production configuration uses a separate PostgreSQL database for performance and scalability. This article will walk you through both install methods.

Thirteen questions you may have:

  1. How do I install (but not initialise) the MAAS snap?
  2. How do I upgrade my 2.7 snap to version 2.8?
  3. What are MAAS initialisation modes?
  4. How do I initialise MAAS for a test or proof-of-concept configuration?
  5. How do I initialise MAAS for a production configuration?
  6. How do I migrate an existing snap install?
  7. What if I want to manually export the MAAS database to an existing PostgreSQL server?
  8. How can I check the service status of my MAAS configuration?
  9. How do I re-initialise MAAS, if I want to?
  10. How can I discover additional init options?
  11. Give me an example of initialising MAAS
  12. Tell me about the MAAS URL
  13. Tell me about the shared secret

If you have installed bind9 or have it running, you will need to uninstall it before installing MAAS. You can check with ps aux | grep named to see if it’s running. The bind9 daemon interferes with MAAS operation and creates a number of unusual, hard-to-debug errors – but don’t worry, MAAS provides DNS and can work with existing DNS servers.

Installing MAAS from the snap

Snaps^ are containerised software packages. To install MAAS from a snap simply enter the following:

$ sudo snap install maas --channel=2.8

After entering your password, the snap will download and install from the 2.8 channel – though MAAS needs initialising before it’s ready to go.

Upgrading MAAS from 2.7

If you want to upgrade from a 2.7 snap to 2.8, and you are using a region+rack configuration, use this command:

$ sudo snap refresh --channel=2.8 maas

After entering your password, the snap will refresh from the 2.8 channel. You will not need to re-initialise MAAS.

If you are using a multi-node maas deployment with separate regions and racks, you should first run the upgrade command above for rack nodes, then for region nodes.

MAAS initialisation modes

MAAS supports the following modes, which dictate what services will run on the local system:

Mode Region Rack Database Description
all* X X X Deprecated (see warning below)
region X Region API server only
rack X Rack controller only
region+rack X X Region API server and rack controller
none Reinitialises MAAS and stops services

all mode being deprecated: The MAAS initialisation mode “all” is deprecated in MAAS version 2.8.0 and will be removed in MAAS version 2.9.0^.

Initialising MAAS as a test configuration

We want to provide a more compact version for those who may be testing MAAS. To achieve this, we’re providing a separate snap, called maas-test-db, which provides a PostgreSQL database for use in testing and evaluating MAAS. The following instructions will help you take advantage of this test configuration.

Once MAAS is installed, you can use the --help flag with maas init to get relevant instructions:

$ sudo maas init --help
usage: maas init [-h] {region+rack,region,rack} . . .

Initialise MAAS in the specified run mode.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit

run modes:
  {region+rack,region,rack}
    region+rack         Both region and rack controllers
    region              Region controller only
    rack                Rack controller only

When installing region or rack+region modes, MAAS needs a
PostgreSQL database to connect to.

If you want to set up PostgreSQL for a non-production deployment on
this machine, and configure it for use with MAAS, you can install
the maas-test-db snap before running 'maas init':
    sudo snap install maas-test-db
    sudo maas init region+rack --database-uri maas-test-db:///

We’ll quickly walk through these instructions to confirm your understanding. First, install the maas-test-db snap:

sudo snap install maas-test-db

Note that this step installs a a running PostgreSQL and a MAAS-ready database instantiation. When it’s done, you can double check with a built-in PostgreSQL shell:

$ maas-test-db.psql
psql (10.6)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \l

This will produce a list of databases, one of which will be maasdb, owned by maas. Note that this database is still empty because MAAS is not yet initialised and, hence, is not yet using the database. Once this is done, you can run the maas init command:

sudo maas init region+rack --database-uri maas-test-db:///

After running for a moment, the command will prompt you for a MAAS URL; typically, you can use the default:

MAAS URL [default=http://10.45.222.159:5240/MAAS]:

When you’ve entered a suitable URL, or accepted the default, the following prompt will appear:

MAAS has been set up.

If you want to configure external authentication or use
MAAS with Canonical RBAC, please run

  sudo maas configauth

To create admins when not using external authentication, run

  sudo maas createadmin

Let’s assume you just want a local testing user named admin:

$ sudo maas createadmin
Username: admin
Password: ******
Again: ******
Email: admin@example.com
Import SSH keys [] (lp:user-id or gh:user-id): gh:yourusername

At this point, MAAS is basically set up and running. You can confirm this with sudo maas status. If you need an API key, you can obtain this with sudo maas apikey --username yourusername. Now you will be able to test and evaluate MAAS by going to the URL you entered or accepted above and entering your admin username and password.

Configuration verification

After a snap installation of MAAS, you can verify the currently-running configuration with:

sudo maas config

Initialise MAAS for a production configuration

To install MAAS in a production configuration, you need to setup PostgreSQL, as described below.

Setting up PostgreSQL from scratch

To set up PostgreSQL, even if it’s running on a different machine, you can use the following procedure:

  1. You will need to install PostgreSQL on the machine where you want to keep the database. This can be the same machine as the MAAS region/rack controllers or a totally separate machine. If PostgreSQL (version 10 or better) is already running on your target machine, you can skip this step. To install PostgreSQL, run these commands:

     sudo apt update -y
     sudo apt install -y postgresql
    
  2. You want to make sure you have a suitable PostgreSQL user, which can be accomplished with the following command, where $MAAS_DBUSER is your desired database username, and $MAAS_DBPASS is the intended password for that username. Note that if you’re executing this step in a LXD container (as root, which is the default), you may get a minor error, but the operation will still complete correctly.

     sudo -u postgres psql -c "CREATE USER \"$MAAS_DBUSER\" WITH ENCRYPTED PASSWORD '$MAAS_DBPASS'"
    
  3. Create the MAAS database with the following command, where $MAAS_DBNAME is your desired name for the MAAS database (typically known as maas). Again, if you’re executing this step in a LXD container as root, you can ignore the minor error that results.

     sudo -u postgres createdb -O "$MAAS_DBUSER" "$MAAS_DBNAME"
    
  4. Edit /etc/postgresql/10/main/pg_hba.conf and add a line for the newly created database, replacing the variables with actual names. You can limit access to a specific network by using a different CIDR than 0/0.

     host    $MAAS_DBNAME    $MAAS_DBUSER    0/0     md5
    
  5. You can then initialise MAAS via the following command:

     sudo maas init region+rack --database-uri "postgres://$MAAS_DBUSER:$MAAS_DBPASS@$HOSTNAME/$MAAS_DBNAME"
    

You should use localhost for $HOSTNAME if you’re running PostgreSQL on the same box as MAAS.

Don’t worry; if you leave out any of the database parameters, you’ll be prompted for those details.

Checking MAAS service status

You can check the status of running services with:

sudo maas status

Typically, the output looks something like this:

bind9                            RUNNING   pid 7999, uptime 0:09:17
dhcpd                            STOPPED   Not started
dhcpd6                           STOPPED   Not started
ntp                              RUNNING   pid 8598, uptime 0:05:42
postgresql                       RUNNING   pid 8001, uptime 0:09:17
proxy                            STOPPED   Not started
rackd                            RUNNING   pid 8000, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-0                RUNNING   pid 8003, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-1                RUNNING   pid 8008, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-2                RUNNING   pid 8005, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-3                RUNNING   pid 8015, uptime 0:09:17
tgt                              RUNNING   pid 8040, uptime 0:09:15

With MAAS installed and initialised, you can now open the web UI in your browser and begin your Configuration journey.

Example of MAAS initialisation

The following demonstrates the region+rack mode, a popular initialisation choice for MAAS:

sudo maas init region+rack

maas will ask for the MAAS URL:

MAAS URL [default=http://10.55.60.1:5240/MAAS]: http://192.168.122.1:5240/MAAS

If you also need to create an admin user, you can use:

sudo maas createadmin

which takes you through the following exchange:

Create first admin account:       
Username: admin
Password: ******
Again: ******
Email: admin@example.com
Import SSH keys [] (lp:user-id or gh:user-id): lp:petermatulis

You will use the username and password created above to access the web UI. If you enter a Launchpad^ or GitHub^ account name with associated SSH key, MAAS will import them automatically.

MAAS URL

All run modes (except none) prompt for a MAAS URL, interpreted differently depending on the mode:

  • region: Used to create a new region controller.
  • rack: Used to locate the region controller.

Shared secret

The ‘rack’ and ‘region+rack’ modes will additionally ask for a shared secret that will allow the new rack controller to register with the region controller.

Reinitialising MAAS

It is also possible to re-initialise MAAS to switch modes. For example, to switch from rack to region:

sudo maas init region

Additional init options

The init command can takes optional arguments. To list them, as well as read a brief description of each, you can enter:

sudo maas init --help

Last updated 11 days ago.