How to install MAAS (snap/3.1/UI)

2.9 3.0 3.1
DEB CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI
SNAP CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI CLI ~ UI

About installing MAAS

MAAS can be installed in either of two configurations: test or production. The test configuration uses a small PostgreSQL database (in a separate snap), designed for use with MAAS. The full-up production configuration uses a separate PostgreSQL database for performance and scalability.

MAAS initialisation modes reference

MAAS supports the following modes, which dictate what services will run on the local system:

Mode Region Rack Database Description
region X Region API server only
rack X Rack controller only
region+rack X X Region API server and rack controller
none Reinitialises MAAS and stops services

About SSH keys

MAAS uses your Launchpad or Github SSH keys to access machines that have been deployed. Normally, you enter this key during the initialisation of MAAS. If you don’t have a key associated with either of these services, you will have an opportunity to paste your public key into the MAAS SSH key list, after you’ve started MAAS for the first time as part of the welcome screens.

About the MAAS URL

All run modes (except none) prompt for a MAAS URL, interpreted differently depending on the mode:

  • region: Used to create a new region controller.
  • rack: Used to locate the region controller.

About the shared secret

The ‘rack’ and ‘region+rack’ modes will additionally ask for a shared secret that will allow the new rack controller to register with the region controller.

How to install MAAS

This article will show you:

Note that all headings are hyperlinks for bookmarking.

How to check system requirements for MAAS

Before installing MAAS for the first time, you should make sure that the target system meets the minimum hardware requirements.

How to upgrade from an earlier snap version to MAAS 3.1 Beta

If you want to upgrade from a earlier snap version to the 3.1 Beta snap (not recommended for production), and you are using a region+rack configuration, use this command:

$ sudo snap refresh --channel=3.1/beta maas

After entering your password, the snap will refresh from the 3.1 channel. You will not need to re-initialise MAAS.

If you are using a multi-node maas deployment with separate regions and racks, you should first run the upgrade command above for rack nodes, then for region nodes.

How to do a fresh snap install of MAAS 3.1 Beta

To install MAAS 3.1 Beta from a snap, simply enter the following:

$ sudo snap install --channel=3.1/beta maas

After entering your password, the snap will download and install from the 3.1 beta channel.

Note that MAAS 3.1 Beta is not recommended for production use.

How to initialise MAAS for a test or POC environment

You can initialise MAAS as a compact version for testing. To achieve this, we provide a separate snap, called maas-test-db, which contains a PostgreSQL database for use in testing and evaluating MAAS. The following instructions will help you take advantage of this test configuration.

Once MAAS is installed, you can use the --help flag with maas init to get relevant instructions:

$ sudo maas init --help
usage: maas init [-h] {region+rack,region,rack} . . .

Initialise MAAS in the specified run mode.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit

run modes:
  {region+rack,region,rack}
    region+rack         Both region and rack controllers
    region              Region controller only
    rack                Rack controller only

When installing region or rack+region modes, MAAS needs a
PostgreSQL database to connect to.

If you want to set up PostgreSQL for a non-production deployment on
this machine, and configure it for use with MAAS, you can install
the maas-test-db snap before running 'maas init':
    sudo snap install maas-test-db
    sudo maas init region+rack --database-uri maas-test-db:///

We’ll quickly walk through these instructions to confirm your understanding. First, install the maas-test-db snap:

sudo snap install maas-test-db

Note that this step installs a a running PostgreSQL and a MAAS-ready database instantiation. When it’s done, you can double check with a built-in PostgreSQL shell:

$ maas-test-db.psql
psql (10.6)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \l

This will produce a list of databases, one of which will be maasdb, owned by maas. Note that this database is still empty because MAAS is not yet initialised and, hence, is not yet using the database. Once this is done, you can run the maas init command:

sudo maas init region+rack --database-uri maas-test-db:///

After running for a moment, the command will prompt you for a MAAS URL; typically, you can use the default:

MAAS URL [default=http://10.45.222.159:5240/MAAS]:

When you’ve entered a suitable URL, or accepted the default, the following prompt will appear:

MAAS has been set up.

If you want to configure external authentication or use
MAAS with Canonical RBAC, please run

  sudo maas configauth

To create admins when not using external authentication, run

  sudo maas createadmin

Let’s assume you just want a local testing user named admin:

$ sudo maas createadmin
Username: admin
Password: ******
Again: ******
Email: admin@example.com
Import SSH keys [] (lp:user-id or gh:user-id): gh:yourusername

At this point, MAAS is basically set up and running. You can confirm this with sudo maas status. If you need an API key, you can obtain this with sudo maas apikey --username yourusername. Now you will be able to test and evaluate MAAS by going to the URL you entered or accepted above and entering your admin username and password.

Initialise MAAS for a production configuration

To install MAAS in a production configuration, you need to setup PostgreSQL, as described below.

Setting up PostgreSQL from scratch

To set up PostgreSQL, even if it’s running on a different machine, you can use the following procedure:

  1. You will need to install PostgreSQL on the machine where you want to keep the database. This can be the same machine as the MAAS region/rack controllers or a totally separate machine. If PostgreSQL (version 10 or better) is already running on your target machine, you can skip this step. To install PostgreSQL, run these commands:

     sudo apt update -y
     sudo apt install -y postgresql
    
  2. You want to make sure you have a suitable PostgreSQL user, which can be accomplished with the following command, where $MAAS_DBUSER is your desired database username, and $MAAS_DBPASS is the intended password for that username. Note that if you’re executing this step in a LXD container (as root, which is the default), you may get a minor error, but the operation will still complete correctly.

     sudo -u postgres psql -c "CREATE USER \"$MAAS_DBUSER\" WITH ENCRYPTED PASSWORD '$MAAS_DBPASS'"
    
  3. Create the MAAS database with the following command, where $MAAS_DBNAME is your desired name for the MAAS database (typically known as maas). Again, if you’re executing this step in a LXD container as root, you can ignore the minor error that results.

     sudo -u postgres createdb -O "$MAAS_DBUSER" "$MAAS_DBNAME"
    
  4. Edit /etc/postgresql/10/main/pg_hba.conf and add a line for the newly created database, replacing the variables with actual names. You can limit access to a specific network by using a different CIDR than 0/0.

     host    $MAAS_DBNAME    $MAAS_DBUSER    0/0     md5
    
  5. You can then initialise MAAS via the following command:

     sudo maas init region+rack --database-uri "postgres://$MAAS_DBUSER:$MAAS_DBPASS@$HOSTNAME/$MAAS_DBNAME"
    

You should use localhost for $HOSTNAME if you’re running PostgreSQL on the same box as MAAS.

Don’t worry; if you leave out any of the database parameters, you’ll be prompted for those details.

How to check the status of MAAS services

You can check the status of running services with:

sudo maas status

Typically, the output looks something like this:

bind9                            RUNNING   pid 7999, uptime 0:09:17
dhcpd                            STOPPED   Not started
dhcpd6                           STOPPED   Not started
ntp                              RUNNING   pid 8598, uptime 0:05:42
postgresql                       RUNNING   pid 8001, uptime 0:09:17
proxy                            STOPPED   Not started
rackd                            RUNNING   pid 8000, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-0                RUNNING   pid 8003, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-1                RUNNING   pid 8008, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-2                RUNNING   pid 8005, uptime 0:09:17
regiond:regiond-3                RUNNING   pid 8015, uptime 0:09:17
tgt                              RUNNING   pid 8040, uptime 0:09:15

How to re-initialise MAAS

It is also possible to re-initialise MAAS to switch modes. For example, to switch from rack to region:

sudo maas init region

How to list additional MAAS initialisation options

The init command can takes optional arguments. To list them, as well as read a brief description of each, you can enter:

sudo maas init --help

How to configure MAAS

Once you’ve successfully installed MAAS (regardless of method), you can now login here:

http://${API_HOST}:5240/MAAS

where $API_HOST is the hostname or IP address of the region API server, which was set during installation. You will see a screen like this:

Log in at the prompts, with the login information you created when initialising MAAS.

Configuration

After a fresh MAAS installation, the web UI presents a couple of welcome screens. From these screens, you can set many system-wide options, including connectivity, image downloads, and authentication keys.

Your main concerns for this experiment are the DNS forwarder, the Ubuntu image import section, and the SSH public key, though you might want to set the region name to something memorable, since this text will appear at the bottom of every MAAS screen in this install domain. Set the DNS forwarder to something obvious, e.g., 8.8.8.8, Google’s DNS server. Set this to your own internal DNS server if you know the IP address.

Select an Ubuntu image to import, noting that you may be required to select at least one LTS version, depending upon the version of MAAS that snap installed. In this example, we’ve already chosen an image, and downloading is partially complete.

When you click on “Continue,” the screen will shift to a screen labelled, “SSH keys for admin:”

In the source drop-down, select “Launchpad,” “Github,” or “Upload.” If you choose one of the first two, you will need to enter your username for that service. For example, if you want to upload your SSH public key from Launchpad, you would enter:

lp:<username>

Likewise, if you want to upload your github public SSH key, you would enter:

gh:<username>

If you want to use your existing public key from your home directory, you can select “Upload”and then copy your entire public key from .ssh/id_rsa.pub (or wherever you may have stored the key):

and paste it into the block labelled “Public key.” Finally, press the “Import” button to import this key:

With this complete, you’ll see that MAAS has been successfully set up. Click ‘Go to the Dashboard’ to proceed.

Note that you may have to wait a few moments for your selected images to sync locally.

How to enable DHCP

Before moving forward with MAAS, you’ll want to enable DHCP. You can do this very easily from the web UI by selecting “Subnets” from the top menu, choosing the VLAN on which you want to enable DHCP, and select the button marked, “Enable DHCP.”

About network discovery

The Dashboard landing page lists non-registered devices that MAAS detected automatically on the network. This network discovery process allows you to easily add or map devices already connected to your network – devices that you may not necessarily want to manage with MAAS.


Last updated 22 days ago.